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  • Lillelund Welch posted an update 1 month, 1 week ago

    Stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident or brain attack, is really a sudden impairment of cerebral circulation in one or more of the blood vessels supplying the mind. Strokes interrupt the oxygen supply to the mind tissues and may cause serious damage. For anybody who has suffered a stroke, it is vitally important to revive normal circulation immediately to limit damage to the brain tissues.

    Although mortality from strokes has been significantly reduced from around 90% in the 1950s, the number still hovers round the 30% and stroke could soon function as most common reason behind death worldwide. Of these who do survive, about half remain permanently disabled and many experience a recurrence within weeks, months or years.

    apakah penyakit stroke bisa sembuh total? Causes and Incidence

    A stroke results from obstruction of a blood vessel, typically outside the brain, but occasionally within the mind itself. Factors that increase the risk of stroke include a history of transient ischemic attacks, atherosclerosis, hypertension, kidney disease, arrhythmias (particularly atrial fibrillation), rheumatic heart disease, diabetes, postural hypertension, heart enlargement, high serum cholesterol, smoking, insufficient exercise, long time use of contraceptives, obesity and a family history of strokes. Females have additional risk factors for stroke such as oral contraceptives that are not present in men. Cocaine induced ischemic stroke is now being reported in younger patients.

    The incidence of stroke increases exponentially from 30 years of age, and etiology varies by age, 95% of strokes occur in people age 45 and older, and two thirds of strokes occur in those over the age of 65. Men traditionally have had a greater threat of stroke than women but women start catching around men five or 10 years after menopause. While stroke is most typical in the elderly, folks of any age and any degree of physical fitness can suffer the injury. An individuals risk of dying if he or she does have a stroke also increases with age.

    Stroke is uncommon in children accounting for only a small percentage of stroke cases every year. Stroke in children is often secondary to congenital heart disease, abnormalities of intracranial vessels genetic disorders and blood disorders such as thrombophilia.

    Types of Stroke

    Strokes can be classified into two major categories: ischemic and hemorrhagic, 80% of strokes are because of ischemia, the rest are because of hemorrhage.

    The major causes of stroke are thrombosis, embolism and hemorrhage:

    1. Thrombosis is the most typical cause in middle age and seniors as they generally have a higher incidence of arterial plague, diabetes or hypertension. It could occur at any age, especially in those with a history of rheumatic heart disease, endocarditis, cardiac arrhythmias, or after open heart surgery.

    2. Embolism is the second most typical cause of stroke. Embolisms occur when a blood vessel is blocked by a clot, a tumor, fat, bacteria or air. Embolisms usually develop within 10 to 20 seconds and without warning and when they reach the brain, will cut off circulation by lodging in a narrow part of an artery causing swelling and tissue death.

    3. Hemorrhage the third most typical type of stroke, that is more prevalent in women than men, like embolism may appear suddenly at any age. It results from chronic hypertension or from aneurysms that cause a sudden rupture of a cerebral artery.

    Signs and Symptoms of Stroke

    Stroke commonly presents with loss of sensory and motor function using one side of the body (85% of ischemic stroke patients have hemiparesis), change in vision, gait, or capability to speak or understand or sudden, severe headache.

    Clinical features of stroke vary according to; the blood vessel affected and the area of the brain that vessel supplies, the severe nature of damage and the power of the affected area to pay for decreased blood supply by means of collateral circulation. Strokes on the left side of the mind primarily affect the right 1 / 2 of your body, and vice versa. Most forms of stroke are not associated with headache, apart from subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral venous thrombosis and occasionally intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Symptoms are usually classified based on the blood vessel affected;

    1. Middle cerebral artery: difficulty swallowing, difficulty speaking, visual field reduction and paralysis of one side, particularly in the facial skin and arm.

    2. Carotid artery: weakness, paralysis, numbness, visual disturbances, headaches, altered degrees of consciousness, difficulty speaking and a drooping eyelid.

    3. Vertebrobasilar artery: weakness, numbness round the lips, visual field cuts, double vision, poor coordination, difficulty swallowing, slurred speech, dizziness and amnesia.

    4. Anterior cerebral artery: confusion, weakness and numbness (especially in the leg), incontinence, lack of coordination, impaired motor and sensory functions and personality changes.

    5. Posterior cerebral artery: sensory impairment, visual field reduction, dyslexia, coma, cortical blindness, however, not paralysis.

    Diagnosis

    For people described the er, early recognition of stroke is deemed important as this may expedite diagnostic tests and treatments. Strokes due to thrombosis embolism, or arterial spasm, which cause ischemia, must be distinguished from those due to hemorrhage, which are usually severe and often fatal. Stroke is diagnosed through several techniques: observation of clinical features, a neurological examination, CT scans or MRI scans, Doppler ultrasound, and arteriography.

    Treatment

    Surgery to improve cerebral circulation, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for clot dissolution, anti coagulants and anticonvulsants are generally used to take care of stroke. Treatment to split up a blood coagulum, the major reason behind stroke, must begin within three hours of the stroke to work. tPA must be administered within three hours of the stroke event. Therefore, patients who awaken with stroke symptoms are ineligible for tPA therapy, because the time of onset cannot be accurately determined. Patients with clot-related (thrombotic or embolic) stroke who are ineligible for tPA treatment could be treated with heparin or other blood thinners, or with aspirin or other anti-clotting agents in some cases.

    Among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, anticoagulation can reduce stroke by 60% while antiplatelet agents can reduce stroke by 20%. Anticoagulants and antithrombotics, keys in treating ischemic stroke, can make bleeding worse and cannot be used in intracerebral hemorrhage. Besides definitive therapies, management of acute stroke includes control of blood sugars, ensuring the patient has adequate oxygenation and adequate intravenous fluids.

    Analgesics, stool softeners to prevent straining and corticosteroids to minimize associated edema may also be used. Lately there were reports of good success in lessening complications with FDA listed power strips used in conjunction with their associated marine phytoplankton nutritional patches that help your body to regulate the disease fighting capability, improve blood circulation and thereby eliminate toxins. Another new course of action for both stroke prevention and rehabilitation which makes sense is to supplement with redox cell signaling molecules. These molecules which are native to your body when you are young are used by your body to correct damage wherever they are needed.

    Prevention

    Certainly, there are three treatment stages for stroke: prevention, therapy soon after the stroke, and post stroke rehabilitation. Therapies to prevent an initial or recurrent stroke are based on treating somebody’s underlying risk factors for stroke, such as for example hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and diabetes. Lowering blood pressure has been conclusively shown to prevent both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. Aspirin prevents against first stroke in patients who have suffered a myocardial infarction. Nutrition, specifically the Mediterranean-style diet, gets the potential of more than halving stroke risk.

    Acute stroke therapies try to stop a stroke while it is happening by quickly dissolving the blood clot causing an ischemic stroke or by stopping the bleeding of a hemorrhagic stroke.

    Post stroke rehabilitation helps individuals overcome disabilities that result from stroke damage. The most popular classes of drugs used to avoid or treat stroke are antithrombotics (antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants) and thrombolytics.

    Rehabilitation

    Stroke may cause issues with thinking, awareness, attention, learning, judgment, and memory. Survivors often have problems understanding or forming speech, they could have a problem controlling their emotions or may express inappropriate emotions. They may likewise have numbness or strange sensations.

    Stroke rehabilitation may be the process where patients with disabling strokes undergo treatment to greatly help them return to normal life whenever you can by regaining and relearning the abilities of living. New advances in imaging and rehabilitation have shown that the brain can compensate for function lost as a result of stroke, therefore stroke rehabilitation should be started as quickly as possible.

    After a stroke, both the stroke survivor and the family are often frightened about coming to home again and getting used alive after stroke. A stroke survivor must get accustomed to doing things differently and it can impact on intimacy, relationships and on work and hobbies, so for some stroke patients, physical therapy and occupational therapy are the cornerstones of the rehabilitation process.

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